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BONE-EATING WORMS IN THE ANTARCTIC: the contrasting fortune of whale and real wood remains around the Southern Ocean Seafloor OLUDAMILOLA ADESIYUN

GEOL 440

DR . CARL KADI (UMGANGSSPRACHLICH)

NOVEMBER 17, 2013

This kind of paper talks about the results from the initial experimental study of the destiny of whale and solid wood remains on the Antarctic seafloor. Using a baited free-vehicle lander design, it can be observed that whale-falls in the Antarctic will be heavily infested by by least two new types of bone-eating worm, Osedax antarcticus sp. and Osedax deceptionensis sp. In stark comparison, wood is still are amazingly well maintained with the a shortage of typical wood-eating fauna like the xylophagainid bivalves. The mixed whale-fall and wood fall experiment provides support towards the hypothesis which the Antarctic circumpolar current can be described as barrier to the larvae of deep-water kinds that are broadly distributed consist of ocean basins. Since human beings first started exploring the Antarctic, wood have been deposited within the seafloor by means of shipwrecks and waste; the info shown through this experiment suggests that this anthropogenic wood could possibly be exceptionally well preserved. Along with the new species descriptions, a thorough phylogenetic studies of Osedax was done, suggesting the clade is most closely linked to the frenulate tubeworms, certainly not the vestimentiferans as earlier reported (Glover, 2013). Research in other water basins have got suggested which the final relaxing place of solid wood and whale remains is normally the ls shelf or perhaps slope, wherever they type ephemeral organic-rich ‘island' refuge for deep-sea fauna to feed via, termed ‘wood falls' and ‘whale-falls'. These studies have demostrated that wood and whale bone will be colonized with a remarkable variety of specialist profound sea creatures, the majority of them new to science. Two of the most important in the deep ocean are the Xylophagainae bivalves, which usually bore in to wood, and the Osedax ‘bone-eating' worms, associates of the annelid clade that bore into vertebrate bone fragments. These microorganisms share impressive ecological commonalities, with their circulation controlled by simply both dispersal ability plus the availability of their very own respective one of a kind habitats.

For many decades, humans have already been aware of the curious ‘shipworms' that bore into wooden in the underwater environment. Sellius published the first significant working 1733, commissioned by the Dutch to examine the pets or animals destroying the wooden pilings protecting the low countries from flooding. He showed the fact that wood-boring Teredo ‘worms' were in fact extraordinary mollusks. 3 centuries of subsequent research has revealed that the Teredinidae shipworms and the strongly related Xylophagainae are present atlanta divorce attorneys oxygenated, saline ocean basin so far examined, from the intertidal to the hadal (Sellius G, 1733).

The wood-eating ‘shipworm 'mollusks were discovered above 250 years earlier than the bone ingesting Osedax as a result of economic significance of ocean-based solid wood structures to humans. Even though the bone-eating Osedax and real wood eating Xylophaga belong to several phyla and are also separated with a huge phylogenetic distance, that they share impressive and convergent ecological commonalities. Both are consultant bio degraders of hard organic components, which type spatially and temporally ephemeral ‘island' g?te on the seafloor. Both make use of bacterial endosymbiosis to probably feed or bore into their substrates. Equally Osedax and the wood eating Xylophaga can easily exhibit intense male dwarfism, an adaptation to the woman's sessile way of life. Most significantly, both these types of organism happen to be presumed to have extraordinary capabilities of dispersal—being able to find the relatively small remains of vertebrates, or perhaps trees, in the vast area of deep-sea sediment. To evaluate these powers of dispersal, an research was done using baited free-vehicle landers at 3 sites for the Antarctic shelf—two soft-sediment sites at normal shelf absolute depths of 500 m; and an unusual superficial...

References: Glover AG, Wiklund H, Taboada S, Avila C, Cristobo J, Johnson CR, Kemp KM, Jamieson AJ, Dahlgren TG. 2013 Bone-eating worms from the Antarctic: the contrasting fate of whale and wood remains on the The southern area of Ocean seafloor. Proc L Soc N 280: 20131390. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2013.1390

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